Important terminology for understanding sugar syrups

Understanding sugar syrups

 Sugar syrups were prepared by ancient Greeks very long time ago. Sugar syrups are based upon the amount of sugar added to 1 liter of water. Syrups exist in different concentrations.The more sugar you add to water the higher the density of the mixture. The density is measured using a hydrometer. The density of a sugar syrup is directly proportional to the length of time the syrup has been boiling and also to the evaporation due to boiling. The more water evaporates the denser the syrup.

Understanding density

Density is defined as the relative "heaviness" of a substance of the same size as compared to water. The atom size and how the atoms are arranged determines the density of a substance. The principle of density was discovered by the Greek scientist Archimedes.

Temperature and pressure both influence the density of any substance. Heating a block of ice into liquid water will reduce its density. Heating water into steam will reduce it’s density even further.

If the substance floats in water, it is less dense than water, while, if the substance sinks in water, it is more dense than water.

When you have two substances of similar volume but different weights1, the difference is due to difference in  density between the two substances.

Density =  mass (g) / volume (ml) => g/ml => mass per unit volume
Where, volume is how much space the substance takes up.

Density of water = 1g / 1 ml.   Density of aluminum = 2.7g/ml

For larger quantities density is measured in kilograms per cubic meter.

Density of water = 1kg / 1 meter3

Understanding Specific Gravity

Specific gravity measures the density of a liquid (sugar syrup) in relation to water and it is measured with a hydrometer. To calculate specific gravity, you must know the density of the solution and the density of water.

If the density of sugar syrup is 1.8 g/ml and the density of water is 1g/1ml, then the specific gravity reading of the syrup is 1.8 g/ml divided by 1g/1ml = 1.8

If the sugar content is measured in degrees Brix, it must be converted into specific gravity.

Understanding degrees Baume

The Baumé scale measures the specific gravity of a solution, which is the ratio between the density of, for example, sugar syrup to the density of water. A reading of 10 degree Baume means that the liquid contains 17.5% sugar (1 degree Baumé = 1.75% sugar within a solution).

Just remember, that when the density of a solution (eg; sugar syrup) is higher than the density of water, only then you can use degrees Baume.

What all this translates to is the following; 30 Beaumé syrup => 1:1 ratio of sugar to water (equal parts).

Understanding degrees Brix

The Brix scale measures the sugar density of a liquid. Degrees Brix are measured with a refractometer when solution (eg; sugar syrup) is at 20 deg. C. Each degree Brix is equivalent to 1 percent of sugar of a liquid. A 30 degrees Brix is equivalent to 30g of sugar per 100g of the solution (pertaining to pastry; sugar syrup).

 

 

 

1 - Weight is the force generated by the gravitational attraction of the earth. Weight of an object is the force on the object due to gravity. That is why the same person on earth does not weigh the same on the moon.

Formulas

FORMULA: BAUMÉ degrees = (Brix degrees + 1.6) / 1.905

FORMULA: BRIX degrees = (BAUMÉ degrees x 1.905) - 1.6

 

For solutions that are more dense than water;

FORMULA: Specific gravity =   145 / (145 - degrees Baumé)

FORMULA: degrees Baumé = 145 - (145 / Specific gravity)

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