Individual ingredient effects to final product



  • Eggs give taste to the end product.
  • Eggs can be used as a leavening agent.
  • Eggs bind together with the flour which results in leavening.
  • Adding a bit of water in the egg wash (eg; 1 tsp/egg) will slow down the coloring of the egg wash, thus allowing you time for the product to bake before the egg wash will burn.
  • Eggs coagulate (change to a solid or semisolid state) together with the air bubbles in the batter. This mass in turn will expand when heated and solidify when fully baked.

Flours & gluten

  • All purpose flour; 10-13% gluten
  • Pastry flour; 8-10% gluten
  • Cake flour; 6.5-10% gluten

 60% cake flour + 40% bread four = pastry flour

Cake flour is used because it is low in gluten.

Gluten development - Factors that influence the development of gluten;

  • Use very cold water
  • Dip your fingers in cold water to cool them off when working the dough
  • Do NOT overwork the dough or gluten will develop
  • Use very little liquid to prevent gluten development
  • Add acids like lemon juice, vinegar or yogurt to prevent gluten development
  • Allow dough to rest to eliminate shrinkage and toughness


  • Milk gives color when applied on certain recipes.


  • Salt gives color and develops taste (brings out the sweetness in sugar) during baking.




  • Sugar adds color during baking. It also gives flavor.
  • Pastry with high proportion of sugar will burn more easily.
  • Sugar absorbs more moisture which in turn results in sogginess when storing pastry over long periods.





liquid --- --- --- --- ---
sugar --- --- --- --- ---
Fat --- --- --- --- ---
Baking time --- --- --- --- ---


"Individual ingredient effect to final pastry item


"Individual ingredient effect to final pastry item


"Individual ingredient effect to final pastry item

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