# Pastry FAQs Letter P

A1.
Common preferments are Poolish, biga, pâte fermetée, levain levure.

A2.
Pate a glacer chocolate is one of the ingredients used in certain pastry, such as chocolate mousse, because of it's shinny appearance. It is harder to burn this chocolate, and it is quite inexpensive in relation to other couverture chocolates. It is excellent to use for chocolate decorations because it does not melt.

A3.
Both pectin and gelatin are thickening agents and are both available in liquid and powder form. The main difference between gelatin and pectin is that gelatin is derived from animals, while pectin is derived from fruits. While pectin is mostly used in jams and jellies, gelatin is used in certain desserts; fruit mousses, marshmallows, bavarian cream, etc. Gelatin is an edible jelly derived from bones & skin of animals, while pectin is derived from ripe fruits especially from apples. For vegetarians Agar can replace gelatin.

A4.
Pâte brisée is dough that can be used for both savory and sweet dishes. It is the simplest dough to make if you know what you are doing. It only consists of flour, butter, salt and water.

A5.

# Understanding layers in puff pastry doughs

## How to do a single turn when making puff pastry dough The number of layers in puff pastry is calculated as follows:

FORMULA: Number of layers after first single turn is completed = (number of folds + 1) number of single turns complete so far

The number of folds when making the first turn is 2, since we are folding the dough in thirds.

If you have completed a single turn the number of single turns completed so far is 1.

Therefore, FORMULA: number of layers after first fold = [(2 + 1)2] - 2 => 7 layers.

NOTE: To avoid confusion, use the above formula to derive the number of layers of the first single turn only. for the rest of the layers, simply multiply by 3, and then subtract by 2.

### First single turn

FORMULA: number of layers after first fold = [(2 + 1)2] - 2 => 7 layers.

NOTE: We subtract 2 layers because when folding the dough in thirds, we have two detrempe layers touching each other which count as one.

### Second single turn

Since after the first single turn you have 7 layers, doing the second single turn (in thirds) you will get (7 layers x 3) - 2 = 19 layers

NOTE: We subtract 2 layers because when folding the dough in thirds, we have two detrempe layers touching each other which count as one.

### Third single turn

Since after the second single turn you have 19 layers, doing the third single turn (in thirds) you will get (19 layers x 3) - 2 = 55 layers

NOTE: We subtract 2 layers because when folding the dough in thirds, we have two detrempe layers touching each other which count as one.

### Fourth single turn

Since after the third single turn you have 55 layers, doing the fourth single turn (in thirds) you will get (55 layers x 3) - 2 = 163 layers

NOTE: We subtract 2 layers because when folding the dough in thirds, we have two detrempe layers touching each other which count as one.

### Fifth single turn

Since after the fourth single turn you have 163 layers, doing the fifth single turn (in thirds) you will get (163 layers x 3) - 2 = 487 layers

NOTE: We subtract 2 layers because when folding the dough in thirds, we have two detrempe layers touching each other which count as one.

### Sixth single turn

Since after the fifth single turn you have 487 layers, doing the sixth single turn (in thirds) you will get (487 layers x 3) - 2 = 1459 layers

NOTE: We subtract 2 layers because when folding the dough in thirds, we have two detrempe layers touching each other which count as one.

A6.
Puff pastry are baked initially at a high temperature of 220deg.C (425deg. F) for about 15-20 minutes to give rise to the dough, and then at a lower temperature of 180deg.C (350deg. F) for another 20 minutes to cook through. Of course the time depends on your oven.

A7.
Pâte à bombe is a mixture that is made by mixing egg yolks with a water/sugar mixture that is cooked to a temperature anywhere between 118-121deg. C.

A6.
Puff pastry items are best if baked at a high temperature (about 220deg. C / 425deg.F) for about 20-35 minutes depending on your oven. For home bakers, bake at middle rack (3rd notch from the bottom). Line the baking sheet with plastic mat.

A7.

A8.
Cornstarch begins to work at a higher temperature than potato starch. So in delicate recipes that you do not wish to loose any volume, it would be preferable to use potato starch, so that the structure of the mixture firms up as quickly as possible during baking. Same applies for tapioca and arrowroot.

A9.
pH stands for power of Hydrogen and is the negative log of hydrogen ion concentration in a liquid solution. pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, which is a measurement based on the amount of hydrogen ions.The total pH scale ranges from 1 to 14, with 7 considered to be neutral. A pH less than 7 is said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline.

A10.

A11.

A12. 