Pastry FAQs letter C
- Q16. Cake layers - If you are a beginner in pastry, is there a trick to cutting equally thick cake layers?
- Q19. Chantilly cream - How much Chantilly cream do you need to mask an 8-inch cake?
- Q22. Chantilly cream - Can you use Italian meringue to stiffen Chantilly cream?
- Q3. Chocolate buttercream - How do you incorporate cocoa powder or chocolate into buttercream in order to make chocolate buttercream?
- Q9. Chocolate - What is the maximum temperature that you can heat chocolate?
- Q5. Chocolate glaze Can you leave chocolate glaze made with cream and canola oil at room temperature for a couple of days?
- Q2. Cocoa powder - How much cocoa butter is in cocoa powder?
- Q12. Cooked sugar Where do you use cooked sugar when making pastry?
- Q13. Cooked sugar - Can you reheat cooked sugar?
- Q14. Cooked sugar - If you exceeded the specified temperature of the cooked sugar, is there anything you can do instead of discarting it and starting all over?
- Q18. Cookies - How do you make soft, chewy cookies?
- Q17. Cornstarch - What is the difference between potato starch and cornstarch when used in pastry?
- Q10. Couverture chocolate - What is couverture chocolate?
- Q11. Couverture chocolate - What happens if you heat couverture chocolate past the maximum temperature?
- Q20. Cream of tartar - What does cream of tartar do in pastry?
- Q15. Crème anglaise -What is the temperature you should not exceed when preparing crème anglaise?
- Q1. Crème fraîche - How can you make crème fraîche?
- Q8. Crème légère - What is crème légère?
- Q21. Creaming - What does it mean when one says to cream the butter?
- Q7. Croissants - What are the differences between croissants and brioches doughs?
- Q4. Crusting buttercream -What is crusting buttercream?
- Q6. Crystallization of sugar - How to prevent sugar crystallization
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To make crème fraîche from scratch, simply mix heavy cream with a little bit of buttermilk, and let mixture sit overnight at room-temperature, and you got crème fraîche.
Cocoa powder contains over 20 percent cocoa butter.
To mix properly the cocoa or chocolate with the buttercream you must follow the following procedure. You must either mix the cocoa powder with some oil and then mix it with a bit of the buttercream, prior to mixing it with the remaining buttercream or melt some chocolate and temper it with some buttercream before folding it in with the remaining buttercream.
Crusting buttercream is a buttercream specifically designed to give you a perfect consistency to decorate cakes with. Crusting does not mean that the buttercream will dry out and crack once on the cake, but it means, that the buttercream dries enough to give you a really smooth finish.
Chocolate glaze that consists of couverture chocolate, heavy cream and oil cannot be left at room temperature. Molds will start to develop after 2 days at room temperature, as shown in photo below;
There are a few methods that are used to prevent sugar from crystallizing when cooking sugar with water;
- Add a bit of glucose, lemon juice, vinegar or cream of tartar in the sugar syrup to prevent sugar crystallization.
- Using a brush moistened with water, brush the sides of the pan (as the sugar/water mixture starts to come to a boil) to remove any sugar that is stuck on the sides, thus preventing the sugar from crystallizing.
- Use lid to cover pan. The steam will wash down any sugar that is stuck on the sides, thus preventing the sugar from crystallizing.
- Do NOT stir the sugar/water mixture once it has began boiling.
- Both croissants and brioches contain flour, sugar, salt and yeast.
- Croissants do not have eggs but brioches do.
- Croissants use milk as a liquid, while brioches use butter and a bit of milk.
- Croissants use butter for the beurrage only, while brioches use butter for the detrempe and for the beurrage.
Crème légère is pastry cream thinned out with some Whipping cream or Chantilly cream.
- Dark chocolate: 131deg.F / 55deg.C
- Milk chocolate: 122deg.F / 50deg.C
- White chocolate: 122deg.F / 50deg.C
NOTE: The exact temperature depends on the amount of cocoa butter in the couverture chocolate.
Couverture chocolate is chocoalate that is chocolate that contains a minimum amount of cocoa butter.
The chocolate will become unworkable. It will become thick and it will crystallize giving it a grainy texture.
Cooked sugar is practically used everywhere when making pastry. It is used when making certain butter creams or meringues. It is also used to make decorations for show pieces. It is used for making pulled sugar, poured sugar, glue for show pieces, among other uses.
Yes you can, but, you must heat it gently in the oven or at very low heat over a bain-marie.
Do NOT discart it. Simply add water and start the boiling process from the beginning. Keep an eye on the temperature. TIP: Use a digital thermometer that sounds a alarm when a set temperature is reached.
The maximum temperature when making crème anglaise,should not exceed 85deg. C (185deg. F).
If you are a beginner, there is a little gadget that you can purchase that will give you even cake layers every time.
Cornstarch begins to work at a higher temperature than potato starch. So in delicate recipes that you do not wish to loose any volume, it would be preferable to use potato starch, so that the structure of the batter firms up as quickly as possible during baking. Same applies for tapioca and arrowroot or root starches.
Follow these guidelines if you wish to make soft, chewy cookies;
- Keep the hydration level high; whatever liquid is specified in the recipe, just add a bit more of it.
- Use less sugar. The more sugar you use the crispier the cookie will become.
- Adding honey or molasses will give you a softer cookie.
- Add some invert sugar will soften the cookies.
- Adding maple syrup will give you a softer cookie.
- Add some glucose will soften the cookies.
About 400g of Chantilly cream should be enough to mask a three layer 8-inch cake.
One of the main reasons for using cream of tartar in pastry is to stabilize the egg whites; keep the beaten egg whites in stiff peak longer.
It also stabilizes the whipping cream. Cream of tartar also prevents the sugar from crystallizing when cooking sugar syrups. Cream of tartar being acidic helps to activate the baking soda which is alkaline.
Lemon juice can be substituted for cream of tartar.
Creaming the butter means to bring the butter to a buttercream consistency.
You initially cream the butter on its own using a paddle attachment in order to soften it, for about a minute (or longer if the butter is not room temperature). Then you add the sugar and continue beating until the butter mixture is smooth and creamy and has the consistency of buttercream. Once at this stage, the butter mixture has enough tiny air bubbles in it to slow down the melting of the butter/sugar mixture during baking, in order to give volume to the final product.
For further information on creaming and other french pastry techniques please follow this link.
We have mixed Chantilly cream with Italian meringue, in equal parts, but it comes out 'runny'. You will notice that the Italian meringue will loose some of its volume once mixed with Chantilly cream.
If you do mix them together, once mixed together, the mixture must be used immediately, and the cake must also be frozen immediately.
Currently testing this mixture (Chantilly/Italian meringue) in the fridge to see if it will hold.